How Much Does A Developmental Psychologist Make – Erikson argued that personality develops in a predetermined sequence through the eight social stages of development, from childhood to adulthood. At any time, a person experiences psychosocial problems that can affect human development or negatively.
For Erikson (1958, 1963), these disorders are psychosocial because they involve the psychological needs of the individual (ie, psycho) as opposed to the needs of society (ie, society).
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According to the theory, the successful completion of each level results in the acquisition of a good personality and good character. The main virtues are the power of knowing money that can be used to solve the following crises.
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Failure to complete a stage can lead to a reduced ability to complete other stages and thus a negative attitude and sense of well-being. However, these steps can be fine-tuned later.
Trust vs. Insecurity is the first stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. This period starts from birth to about 18 months. At this stage, the infant is unsure of the world it lives in and looks to its caregiver for stability and ongoing care.
Food is a very important job nowadays. This is one of the first and most important ways children will learn if they can trust the world around them.
This sets the stage for their worldview, which is a place of safety, security, or where their needs cannot be met.
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Success at this level leads to an attitude of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can hope that when a new crisis arises, it is possible that others will be a source of support.
If the virtue of hope is not acquired, fear arises. This baby brings a sense of insecurity into other relationships. This can cause anxiety, increased insecurity and overconfidence in the world around you.
In line with Erikson’s views on the importance of trust, research by Bowlby and Ainsworth has highlighted how early attachment styles can affect your relationships with others later in life.
The balance between trust and confidence lets the baby know that although there may be moments of discomfort or anxiety, he can depend on the caregiver.
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This helps the baby develop the strength and ability to cope with stress or suffering in the future.
Section 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt are the second stage of Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. This period takes place between the ages of 18 and about three years. According to Erikson, children at this stage focus on developing self-control and physical skills and a sense of independence.
The child grows physically and moves around, discovering that he has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc.
For example, children at this age begin to express their independence by going to their mother, choosing what toys to play with, and choosing what clothes they like, what to eat, etc.
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This is when children begin to use their independence by controlling their physical activity, which can have a great impact on the sense of independence or shame and doubt.
Erikson argues that parents should allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities in an encouraging environment that accepts failure.
Success at this level leads to the quality of desire. When children at this stage are encouraged and supported and their independence increases, they become more confident and confident that they can survive in the world.
Let’s say that children are criticized, controlled too much, or not given the opportunity to express themselves. In this case, they begin to feel that they are not worthy of their ability to live and may be overly dependent on others, lack self-esteem, and feel ashamed or doubtful about their rights.
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Erikson says that it is very important that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities in an encouraging environment that accepts failure.
For example, instead of trying on clothes, a supportive parent should be patient and let their child try until they are successful or ask for help.
For this reason, parents should encourage the child to be independent and protect the child from always giving up.
A strong balance is required from a parent. They must try not to do everything for the child, but if the child fails at work, they will not criticize the child for failure and accidents (especially toilet training).
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The balance between freedom and shyness and doubt allows the child to understand that although he cannot always control his environment, he can control his actions and decisions, thus developing confidence strength and power.
The third part. Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative vs. Guilt is the third stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. In engaging in the guilt phase, children often express themselves through play management and other social interactions.
These are the warmest, fastest growing years in a child’s life. According to Bee (1992), this is “a time of strong behavior and behavior that parents can perceive as aggressive”.
During this period, the main thing is that the child is always interacting with other children at school. Play is central to this level as it allows children to explore their communication skills through introductory activities.
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A child begins to demonstrate control and competence in his or her environment by organizing activities, completing tasks, and facing challenges.
Children begin to plan activities, invent games and start activities with others. When children are given this opportunity, children develop initiative and confidence in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Success at this level leads to good intentions.
On the other hand, when this desire is reduced by criticism or control, children feel guilty. The child often oversteps the limits of his power, and the danger is that the parents punish the child and limit his ways too much.
It is at this time that a child begins to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge grows. If parents view the child’s questions as irrelevant, annoying, embarrassing, or threatening to other aspects of the behavior, the child may feeling guilty about “offending.”
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Too much guilt can keep a child from interacting with others and inhibit his or her creativity. A certain guilt is really necessary; otherwise, the child will not know how to control himself and will not have a conscience.
The balance between direction and guilt at this time can help children understand that it is okay to take responsibility and make their own decisions, but sometimes rules or regulations set by others must be followed. Successfully navigating this level develops the virtue of purpose.
At this time, caregivers should provide a safe and supportive environment that allows children to explore freely. It builds their approach, helps develop problem-solving skills, builds self-confidence and resilience.
By understanding the importance of assessment and providing the right support, caregivers can help children navigate this stage successfully and reduce guilt.
Erik Erikson’s Stages Of Psychosocial Development Explained
Erikson’s fourth psychosocial problem, related to agency (authority) vs. inferiority, occurs in childhood between the ages of 5 and 12. At this time, children begin to compare themselves with their peers to determine their abilities and worth.
Children are at a stage where they are learning to read and write, do combinations and do things on their own. Teachers begin to play an important role in a child’s life when they teach art.
At this time, a child’s peers become more important and are the main factors that make the child’s self-esteem.
The child now has a need to gain favor by demonstrating socially valued abilities and to be proud of his accomplishments.
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This period usually occurs during primary school, around the age of 6-11, and children’s school experiences can have a significant impact on their development.
When children are encouraged and strengthened in their ways, they develop a sense of perseverance (ability) and confidence in achieving their goals.
If this strategy is not supported, if the parent or teacher limits it, then the child begins to feel low, doubting his ability and may not understand his ability .
If a child can’t develop the specific skills they think society wants (like playing sports), they may develop feelings of inferiority.
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Some failure may be necessary for a child to be humble. Again, a balance between competence and modesty is important.
The organization between the company and the lower people allows children to understand their skills and understand that they have the ability to work and achieve their goals, even when they have problems.
At this point, teachers and parents need to provide feedback that is consistent and constructive and encouraging, not just achievement.
Section 5. Identity vs. Complex work The fifth aspect of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is identity vs. complex task.
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